Wednesday, August 12, 2020 - Factions (Political Parties)

Video Subtitles:

hey good to see everybody today is
constitution study group
and i'm going to be looking into the
history of the
political parties and
what the constitution and what the
federalists as well as the
anti-federalists had to say
about the future of political parties at
the time of
writing the constitution
and you know first of all i want to say
thank you for having me back to talk
about the constitution
i understand that i am
very much not qualified just like a
child is learning
but sometimes that's the best way to
learn right
i took a few weeks off to
do my own thing um just relax a little
i was doing a lot of this uh you know
high level thinking with the the
constitution work and
um today anticipating of coming on with
you guys but actually
right before coming on live here to a
virtual town hall
that was being hosted by my friend brock
uh he's a bitcoin friend early bitcoin
and mentor and uh he is running for
student of the united states
uh and he's hosting some virtual town
halls as well as some other
very open source platform building for
the communities so
i you know look forward to seeing uh if
there's an opportunity for me to help
in this particular work that i've been
doing with you guys
on studying the constitution and
you know everything that it's about
so i'm just gonna make sure that our
online is doing well
yesterday it was a little bit laggy so i
do apologize
to anybody that was watching i'm trying
improve the quality now
but the nicer camera equipment is
processing a lot more data
than it's used to so i think that's one
reason why it is laggy but
i just have to tamper with the settings
uh to get it to work correctly so i'm
just checking the video now
looks like it is my it might be a little
laggy just relax a little bit i was
doing a lot of this uh you know
high-level thinking with
the con
so it looks like it is laggy that's
let me try to fix the tuition work and
um today
i was planning it
let's see how it's doing on twit all
right we're trying again
streaming again
let's see if this is much better quality
looks like the video might be lagging at
least the audio is picking up
so whatever i'm talking about
there's no one here anyway so it's okay
see how it looks
thank you for your patience if you're
watching this
and being patient
so his town hall was good you know i
learned a lot and and that kind of got
me triggered
to research more about what he was
talking about
with you know even our first president
warning because he ran as president and
served as president
um under no political
so um you know that's interesting
but it was in the next election that we
had our
bi son that himself
had commented by um madison himself by
james madison himself who uh you know
had written
and and you know spoke on the
challenges of um and the terms that they
used then the term that they used was
and when i was reading that federalist
paper number 10
last month you know that was a big part
of that reading was the factions
it's like we can't control factions
uh when you have a large system where
people have the ability to
um you know express their needs
you know of the government and then
it can lead to these factions for me
so these are like groups of people that
have common interests
and that will kind of work together to
influence government
um and when i was reading that i i just
kind of read it as factions i understood
that word and i was thinking okay so
that could just be
um you know movements of people and
their ideas but you know come to find
out really what they
what they meant was um
political parties and and majority
politicians today's constitution study
and i'm going to be looking into the
history of the
political parties and
what the constitution and what the
federalists as well as anti-fed
and uh he is running for president of
the united states
so it looked like the last video
worked so um
you know that's interesting but it was
in the next election that we had our
first political party formed
all right i'm just going to continue by
i'm going to have to figure this out
maybe my brother will eventually be able
to help me figure out how to not make
these videos so laggy
how's it doing on twitch
um and so then the interesting thing
about madison
was you know reading that and seeing his
for you know this issue
yeah it looks like it's not even playing
on twitch now
what a shame
so it's saying it's
bitrate is at 3 000.
and maybe i should set it to 4 000.
that's where it was at
2 500 is where maybe it's too much
okay i'm just going to continue on
i'm really sorry if uh video is lagging
for you but the audio
still should be working for you so it
should be fine
um so yeah madison
spoke on this and then when i was
the history which i'll go into detail
just from wikipedia i'm not going to
you know do any kind of special research
for this but
madison under the leadership of
was actually the first candidate
you know to run for president under a
political party
uh which was like kind of the
anti-federalist no it wasn't
directly the anti-federalists as
you know we we kind of understand it
with the anti-federalist papers kind of
the back and forth
after the constitution was originally
written and then debated
at the um in philadelphia
um this anti-federalist is kind of a
different movement it's the political
and you know was founded by both
and madison so i thought that was kind
of cool
and interesting that um
you know someone could so passionately
criticize something
and then become that something
so yes
just a couple more seconds
technology i think while i'm waiting for
i can go grab my hot water i totally
started doing this without having my hot
water with me
i waited so long that hot water has now
become cold water so i have to wait for
it to heat up a little bit more
oh this is still very infuriating
and and you know today i am going to be
challenges of having a central
government say
black and a republic called summaries
the terms that they use then uh wasn't a
political party
we don't know what they used was faction
uh and when i was reading that
yeah the the facebook video is bad i'm
sorry guys i know you're trying to keep
up with this
i'm gonna have to figure out my settings
let's see just a google search
yeah there's not gonna be a solution
this time around so i'm just gonna keep
going you guys will get the audio
and the choppy video i'm sorry
okay so i'm gonna go to the wikipedia
page for the history of the political
parties so there
are um six main phases of political
uh in the united states
first is well this is first second third
fourth fifth
and sixth party systems which all have
been in place since 1933.
the first party system was from 1792
until 1824
and this was um
featured the federalist party in the
democratic republican party
so that was the anti-federalist party
that i was saying that was
started by madison and jefferson so we
had those two parties which were
you know kind of already the factions
that were
established during you know the times
of constructing the constitution
so the democratic republican party was
founded by madison and thomas jefferson
who strongly opposed hamilton's agenda
the jeffersonians came to power in 1800
and the federalists were too elitist to
compete effectively
the federalists survived in the
northeast but their refusal to support
the war of 1812
verged on succession and was a
devastating blow when the war
ended well the era of good feelings
james monroe marked the end of the first
party system and a brief period in which
partisanship was minimal
so then we have the second party system
from 1828 to 1854.
second party system operated following
the splintering of the democratic
republican party so that was that
original party
formed by madison and jefferson it was
split so the two major parties dominated
the political landscape
were the whig party led by henry clay
that grew from national from the
national republican party
and the democratic party led by andrew
the democrats supported the primacy of
the presidency over other branches of
government and opposed both the bank of
the united states as well as
modernizing programs that they felt
would build up
industry at the expense of the taxpayer
the whigs on the other hand advocated
the primacy of
congress over the executive branch as
well as policies of
modernization and economic protectionism
central political battles of this era
were the bank war
in the spoils system of federal
the 1850s saw the collapse of the whig
party largely as a result of decline in
its leadership
and a major intra-party split over
slavery as a result of the
kansas-nebraska act
in addition the fading of old economic
issues removed many of the unifying
forces holding the party together
so that was a short-lived political
and then we moved on to the a third
party 90s
oh that looks rich
oh i got water in there already i just
drank it
well it's still good
this was characterized by the emergence
of the anti-slivery
republican party which adopted many of
the economic policies of the whigs such
national banks railroads high tariffs
homesteads and aid to land-grant
the democratic party was in large part
the opposition party during this period
although it often controlled the senate
or the house of representatives or both
civil war and reconstruction issues
polarized the parties until the
compromise of 1877
which ended the latter thus both parties
broad-based voting coalitions and the
race issue pulled
newly and enfranchised african-americans
into the republican party while white
deemed redeemers joined the democratic
the democratic coalition also had
pro-business bourbon democrats
traditional democrats in the north
many of them former copperheads
and catholic immigrants among others the
republican coalition also consisted of
businessmen shop owners skilled
clerks and professionals who were
attracted to the party's
modernization policies
so the republicans used to be
progressive that's interesting
so this was from 1854 to the 1890s then
we get to the fourth political party
system fourth party system
which was 1896 to 1932
and it consisted of the same interest
groups as the third party system but saw
major shifts in the central issues of
this period also corresponded to the
progressive area
era and was dominated by the republican
republicans were progressive it became
what the republicans blamed their
democrats for the panic of the 1893
of 1893 which later resulted in william
mckinley's victory over william jennings
bryan in the 1896 presidential election
the central domestic issues changed to
government regulation of railroads and
large corporations
trusts the protective tariff the role of
labor unions child labor and need for a
new banking system
corruption and political parties primary
elections direct election of senators
racial segregation efficiency in
government women's suffrage
and control of immigration
most voting blocs continued unchanged
but some
realignment took place giving
dominance in the industrial northwest
and new strength in the border streets
border strait states
historians have long debated why no
labor party emerged in the united states
in contrast to western europe
again the republicans were progressive
the fifth and six party systems since
and that's our current system that we
know now
it emerged with the new deal coalition
that beginning in 1933. the republicans
began losing support after the great
giving rise to democratic president
franklin roosevelt and the activist
new deal democrats promoted american
liberalism anchored in a
coalition of specific liberal groups
especially ethno-religious
cons constituents
opposition republicans were split
between a conservative
wing led by ohio senator robert taft
and a more successful moderate wing
exemplified by the politics of
northeastern leaders such as
nelson rockefeller jacob javits and
henry cabot lodge
expert debate whether this era ended and
a sixth
party system uh subsequently emerged
in the mid-1960s when the new deal
coalition died the early 1980s
when the moral majority in the reagan
were formed the early 1990s when third
emerged among democrats the mid-90s
during the republican revolution
or the fifth system continues in some
to the presence so debate
on whether it's changed or not i would
think it's changed it feels like it's
the 1930s the democrats positioned
more towards liberalism while
conservatives increasingly dominated the
however new
voter coalitions emerged during the
latter half of the 20th century with
conservatives and the republicans
becoming dominant in the south rural
areas and suburbs
white liberals and the democrats
increasingly started to rely on a
coalition of african-american hispanics
white urban progressives
so that's the history of the political
so really like even the current
status of republican versus democrat is
a very modern development
it's uh it wasn't like that you know
when these parties first
came so now it's telling me the video is
looks like it's done everywhere i might
have to restrain
this tea is strong it's also you know
kind of crisp and
minty and i think that's like literally
because they
stored the tea near mint in their
and so that's what's in addition the
fading of old economic issues removed
many of the unifying forces holding the
party together
so that was a short-lived political
and then we move
let's see if it goes back up it says
it's sending data
all right we are back up
so the next thing that i wanted to share
was hey lizette
good to see you i hope you're doing well
i wanted to read uh federalist paper
51 which
is written by madison and
a little bit different than
oh well
we're live on t-lit again on facebook
again if you guys want to try to find
so i'm just going to read it
because i read federalist paper number
10 and
that addressed madison's
reservations about factions
and how to safeguard against that
and this is a little bit different so
this is uh the structure of the
must furnish the proper checks and
balances between the different
to the people of the states of new york
to what expedient then shall we finally
resort for maintaining and practice the
necessary partition of power among the
several departments
as laid down in the constitution the
only answer that can be given
is that as all these exterior provisions
are found to be inadequate
the defect must be supplied by so
contriving the interior structure of the
as that its several constituent parts
by their mutual relations be the means
of keeping each other in their proper
without presuming to undertake a full
development of this important idea
i will hazard a few different
observations which may perhaps
place it in a clearer light and enable
us to form
a more correct judgment to the
principles and structures of the
government planned by the convention
in order to lay a new foundation for
that separate and distinct
exercise of the different powers of
which to a certain extent is admitted on
all hands to be essential to the
of liberty it is evident that each
should have a will of its own and
consequently should be so constituted
that the members of each
should have a little agency as possible
in the appointment of the members of the
where this principle regulars rigorously
adhered to
it would require that all the
appointments for the supreme
executive legislative and judiciary
magistries should be drawn from the same
foundation of authority
the people through channels having no
communication whatever with one another
perhaps such a plan of constructing the
several departments would be less
difficult in practice than it may
in contemplation appear some
difficulties however and some additional
expense would attend the execution of it
some deviations therefore from the
principal must be admitted
in the constitution of the judiciary
department in particular it might be
in expedience to insist rigorously on
the principle
first because peculiar qualifications
being essential
in the members the primary consideration
ought to be to select that made of
which best secures these qualifications
secondly because the permanent
tenure by which the appointments are
held in that department
must soon destroy all sense of
dependence on the authority
comfort conferring them it is equally
that the members of each department
shall be as little dependent as possible
on those of the others
for the emoluments and annexed
to their offices where the executive
or the judges not independent of the
legislature in this particular
their independence and every other would
would be merely nominal but the great
security against a gradual concentration
of the several powers
in the same department consists in
giving those who administer each
department the necessary
constitutional means and personal
motives to resist encroachments of the
the provisions for defense must in this
as in all other cases be made
to the danger of attack
ambition must be made to counteract
the interest of the man must be
connected with the constitutional rights
of the place
it may be a reflection on human nature
that such
devices should be necessary to control
the abuses of government
but what is government itself but the
greatest of all reflections on human
if men were angels no government would
be necessary
if men were angels no government would
be necessary
repeat that if angels were
reflections on if angels
were to govern men neither external nor
internal controls on government would be
in framing a government which is to be
administered by men over men
the great difficulty lies in this
you must first enable the government to
control the governed
and in the next place oblige it to
control itself
a dependence on the people is no doubt
the primary control on the government
but experience has taught mankind the
necessity of auxiliary
precautions this policy of supplying
by opposite and revival interests
the defect of better motives might be
traced through the whole system of human
private as well as public we see it
particularly displayed in all of the
subordinate distribution of power
where the constant aim is to divide and
arrange the
several offices in such a manner as that
may be a check on the other that the
private interest of every individual may
a sentinel over the public rights
these inventions of prudence cannot be
less requisites in the distribution
of supreme powers of the state but it is
not possible to give
each department an equal power of
in republican government the legislative
authority necessarily predominates
the remedy for this inconveniency is to
divide the legislature into different
and to render them by different modes of
election and different principles of
as little connected with each other as
the nature of their common functions and
their common dependence on society will
it may even be necessary to guard
against dangerous encroachments by still
precautions as the weight of the
legislative authority requires that it
should thus
be thus uh divided the weakness of the
executive may require on the other hand
that it should be fortified an absolute
negative on the legislature
appears at first view to be the natural
defense with which the executive
magistrate should be armed but perhaps
it would be
neither altogether safe nor alone
on ordinary occasions it may be exerted
with the requisite firmness
and on extraordinary occasions it may be
perfidiously abused
may not this defect of an absolute
negative be supplied by
some qualified connection between this
weaker department
and the weaker branch of the stronger
department by which the latter may be
to support the constitutional rights of
the former without being too much
detached from the rights of its own
but the principles on which these
observations are founded be just as i
persuade myself they are
and they be applied as a criterion to
the several
state constitutions into the federal
it will be found that if the latter does
not perfectly correspond with them
the former indefinite infinitely less
the former are infinitely less able to
bear such a test
there are moreover two considerations
particularly applicable to the federal
system of america
which place that system in a very
interesting point of view
first in a single republic all the power
surrendered by the people is submitted
to the administration of a single
and the interpretations of guarded are
against by a division of the government
into distinct and separate departments
in the compound republic of america the
power surrendered by the people
it first divided between two
is for the the people okay by the people
is first divided into two distinct
and then the portion allotted to each
subdivided among distinct and separate
hence a double security arises to the
rights of the people
the different governments will control
each other
at the same time that each will be
controlled by itself
second it is of guard one part of the
society against the injustice of the
other part
different interests necessarily exist in
different cases of citizens
if a majority be united by a common
interest the rights of the minority
will be insecure
so this is the faction if the majority
be united by a common interest the
rights of the minority will be insecure
so that's the fear that's what we have
to watch out for
and that's where we are now and that's
where we have been over the past
century of allowing a majority
um gang up together
and that's it it's like you have a
winner or a loser and the winners
their interests are going to be served
which then means anybody who's not in
those interests
or in the minority are going to be
completely margin
marginalized and left behind
in a free government the security for
civil rights must be the same
as that for religious rights they
consist in the one case and the
multiplicity of interests
and in the other in the multiplicity of
the degree of security in both cases
will depend on the number of interests
and sects
and this may be presumed to depend on
the extent of country and number of
comprehended under the same governments
this view of the subject must
particularly recommend a proper federal
system to all
the sincere and considerate friends of
republican government
since it shows that an exact proportion
as the territory of the union may be
into more circumscribed confederacies or
oppress oppressive combinations of a
majority will be facilitated
the best security under the republican
for the rights of every class of
citizens will be diminished
and consequently consequently the
stability and independence of some
member of the government
the only other security must be
proportionately increased
justice is the end of government it is
the end of
civic society civil society it ha
it it ever has been and ever will be
pursued until it be obtained or until
liberty be lost in the pursuit
in a society under the forms of which
the stronger faction can readily unite
and oppress the weaker
anarchy may as truly be said to reign
as in a state of nature where the weaker
individual is not secured against the
violence of the stronger
and as in the latter state even though
stronger individuals are prompted
by the uncertainty of their condition to
submit to a government
which may protect the weak as well as
themselves so in the former state
would be the more powerful factions or
parties be
granularly induced by a like motive
to wish for government which will
all parties the weaker as well as the
more powerful
it will be doubted that if the state of
rhode island was separated from the
and left to itself the insecurity of
rights under the popular form of
within such narrow limits would be
displayed by
such reiterated oppositions of factious
majorities that some power altogether
independent of the people would soon be
called for by the voice of the very
factions who misrule
had approved the necessity of it in the
extended republic of the united states
and among the great variety of interest
parties and sex which it embraces a
coalition of
a coalition of the majority of the whole
could seldom take place in any other
principles other than those of justice
and the general good wilts there being
less danger to a minor from the will of
the major party
there must be less pretext also to
provide for the security of the former
by introducing into the government a
will not dependent on the latter
or in other words a will independent of
the society itself
it is no less certain that it is
important notwithstanding the contrary
opinions which has been entailed that
the larger the society
provided it lie within a practical
the more duly capable it will be of
and happily for the republican cause the
predictable sphere may be carried to a
very giant extent
by judicious modification and mixture of
the federal
principle so that was interesting i
would read that again
the larger the society provided it lied
within a practical sphere
the more duly capable it will be of
so that's interesting and that's like
contrary to
what the anti-federalists were saying
is that the larger the society the more
people there are
the more complex it becomes the harder
it is
to manage everything
so yeah that was it that was federal's
paper number 51.
it looks like i am still laggy
always fun
and that's it you know that's all i
wanted to talk about um
you know the political parties and so
this means that
there is opportunity for change in two
ways right so there's opportunity
of how our political party system has
already even within the republican and
party system there has been significant
shifts in the ethos of those two parties
and the interests of those two parties

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